Datamappify - A New Take on Decoupling Domain, Form and Persistence in Rails

This post is about the ruby library we are building - Datamappify, please go check it out.

At Locomote we are building a relatively large web application using Rails. Before we began to lay the foundation, we knew very well that if we wanted the project to be maintainable we had to architect the system with extra care and attention. More specifically, we can’t rely on simply using ActiveRecord which combines behaviour and persistence as our domain models.

We began our search for something that would help us decouple our application from the domain layer down to the form handling. We’ve found a couple of gems that are close to what we were after - Curator, Minimapper, Edr and later on Reform. They are all wonderful gems but unfortunately none of them has everything we need.

Here are the things we need:

  • Decouple domain logic and data persistence.
  • Decouple models and forms.
  • Support ActiveRecord (or at the very least, ActiveModel) so we can still use many of the awesome gems like Devise, SimpleForm and CarrierWave.
  • Support attributes mapped from different data sources (e.g. remote web services from third-party vendors).
  • Support lazy loading so that attributes stored on remote data sources will not get triggered upon loading the entities.

All things considered, we bit the bullet and started working on Datamappify.

Before I go into details and examples, here is an extremely simplified overview of Datamappify’s architecture:

As you can see, Datamappify is loosely based on Repository pattern and Entity Aggregation pattern.

Datamappify has three main design goals:

  1. To utilise the powerfulness of existing ORMs so that using Datamappify doesn’t interrupt too much of your current workflow. For example, Devise would still work if you use it with a UserAccount ActiveRecord model that is attached to a User entity managed by Datamappify.
  2. To have a flexible entity model that works great with dealing with form data. For example, SimpleForm would still work with nested attributes from different ORM models if you map entity attributes smartly in your repositories managed by Datamappify.
  3. To have a set of data providers to encapsulate the handling of how the data is persisted. This is especially useful for dealing with external data sources such as a web service. For example, by calling UserRepository.save(user), certain attributes of the user entity are now persisted on a remote web service. Better yet, dirty tracking and lazy loading are supported out of the box!

You can read more about Datamappify in the project’s README. For this blog post I will focus on how we use Datamappify in our Rails application. We are still early days in our application development and Datamappify still has quirks and issues, but I am hoping this post will illustrate some of the key benefits of Datamappify.

Getting Started

Getting started with using Datamappify is really easy. We simply include it in the Gemfile:

gem 'datamappify'

To keep things organised, we put entities and repositories in their respective directories under app:

Entities

The reason we wanted Datamappify to utilise existing ORMs like ActiveRecord, is so that we could still use gems like Devise.

So, we have a UserAccount model that handles authentication:

class UserAccount < ActiveRecord::Base
  devise :database_authenticatable,
         :recoverable, :rememberable, :trackable, :validatable
end

UserAccount has one and only one purpose - user account authentication. Other user behaviours would be contained in either the User entity itself or service objects. Speaking of the User entity, it looks like this:

class User
  include Datamappify::Entity

  attr_accessor :user_account

  attribute :account_username,  String
  attribute :account_email,     String
  attribute :first_name,        String
  attribute :last_name,         String
  attribute :activated,         Boolean, :default => true

  attributes_from Contact,      prefix_with: :work
  
  validates :first_name,        presence: true
  validates :last_name,         presence: true

  references :agency

  def full_name
    "#{first_name} #{last_name}"
  end
end

We include Datamappify::Entity in the User class to make it an entity. We set the :user_account accessor is so that we could attach the UserAccount object onto the entity.

The attribute DSL is from Virtus - we get attribute type coercion for free, awesome!

attributes_from is a DSL provided by Datamappify - it essentially “mounts” all the attributes from another entity, in this case the Contact entity, which looks like this:

class Contact
  include Datamappify::Entity

  attribute :email,        String
  attribute :phone_number, String
  attribute :fax_number,   String

  validates :phone_number, presence: true
  validates :fax_number,   presence: true
end

All the attributes and validation rules from Contact are now “mounted” on User. attributes_from Contact, prefix_with: :work is equivalent to:

attribute :work_email,        String
attribute :work_phone_number, String
attribute :work_fax_number,   String

validates :work_phone_number, presence: true
validates :work_fax_number,   presence: true

Validation DSL is provided by ActiveModel::Validations.

references :agency is a convenient DSL provided by Datamappify. It is equivalent to:

attr_accessor :agency

attribute :agency_id, Integer

Now that we have entities, we need a way to retrieve and store them. For that we need repositories.

Repositories

Here is the user repository:

class UserRepository
  include Datamappify::Repository

  for_entity User

  default_provider :ActiveRecord

  map_attribute :account_username,  'ActiveRecord::UserAccount#username'
  map_attribute :account_email,     'ActiveRecord::UserAccount#email'
  
  map_attribute :work_email,        'ActiveRecord::Contact#email'
  map_attribute :work_phone_number, 'ActiveRecord::Contact#phone_number'
  map_attribute :work_fax_number,   'ActiveRecord::Contact#fax_number'
end

Similarly to an entity, we include Datamappify::Repository to make the class a repository. We specify for_entity to link the repository to an entity, and default_provider to use a specific data provider for unmapped attributes.

Unmapped attributes are the ones not specified in map_attribute, in this case they are first_name, last_name and activated. Unmapped attributes are actually automatically mapped by Datamappify, so the user repository essentially does this:

map_attribute :first_name, 'ActiveRecord::User#first_name'
map_attribute :last_name,  'ActiveRecord::User#last_name'
map_attribute :activated,  'ActiveRecord::User#activated'

The first argument of map_attribute is the name of the attribute from the User entity (e.g. :first_name).

The second argument is a string containing three things:

  1. ActiveRecord is the data provider.
  2. ::User is the ActiveRecord model class.
  3. #first_name is the ActiveRecord attribute from the model class.

Even though the User entity is a representation of a user on the domain level, the underlying data structure does not necessary have to be. As you can see from the user repository example, we are mapping :account_username and :account_email to the UserAccount ActiveRecord model we’ve seen before. And we have a bunch of contact details attributes mapped to the Contact ActiveRecord model.

The database schema therefore looks like this:

create_table "contacts", force: true do |t|
  t.string  "email"
  t.string  "phone_number"
  t.string  "fax_number"
  t.integer "user_id"
end

create_table "user_accounts", force: true do |t|
  t.string   "username",               default: "", null: false
  t.string   "email",                  default: "", null: false
  t.string   "encrypted_password",     default: "", null: false
  t.string   "reset_password_token"
  t.datetime "reset_password_sent_at"
  t.datetime "remember_created_at"
  t.integer  "sign_in_count",          default: 0
  t.datetime "current_sign_in_at"
  t.datetime "last_sign_in_at"
  t.string   "current_sign_in_ip"
  t.string   "last_sign_in_ip"
  t.integer  "user_id"
  t.datetime "created_at"
  t.datetime "updated_at"
end

create_table "users", force: true do |t|
  t.string  "first_name"
  t.string  "last_name"
  t.boolean "activated"
  t.integer "agency_id"
end

Note that because the Contact entity is mounted on the User entity, we need a foreign key user_id in the contacts table to link them.

Data providers

Because we are allowed to specify a data provider (i.e. ActiveRecord) for each attribute, we can map attributes to entirely different data providers! For instance, we could have:

map_attribute :first_name, 'ActiveRecord::User#first_name'
map_attribute :last_name,  'ActiveRecord::User#last_name'
map_attribute :activated,  'Sequel::UserActivation#activated'

Now the activated attribute is mapped to the UserActivation Sequel model. This powerful feature would allow us to develop data providers that communicate with remote web services. :)

Repository APIs

Datamappify provides a bunch of APIs for retrieving and storing data. These APIs are being developed as needed during our application development.

For instance, to find a particular user entity by ID:

user = UserRepository.find(1)

To get all the users:

users = UserRepository.all

To search for users:

users = UserRepository.find(:first_name => 'Fred', :activated => true)

To save a user:

UserRepository.save(user)

To delete a user:

UserRepository.destroy(user)

There are some limitations for certain APIs, you can read more about them here.

When saving an entity, because Datamappify has an internal pool for tracking dirty attributes, only those dirty attributes will get saved.

Also, Datamappify supports attribute lazy loading, all we have to do is to tell our entity to become lazy aware:

class User
  include Datamappify::Entity
  include Datamappify::Lazy
end

Once an entity is lazy aware, a repository will inject the lazy loading mechanism onto the entity when it retrieves such entity (via find).

Both repositories and entities support inheritance, again, you may read more about them in the project’s README.

Putting Things Together With A Controller

Remember we have the UserAccount for authentication? So how does that work? Well, here’s the piece of code in our application controller:

class ApplicationController < ActionController::Base
  before_filter :authenticate_user_account!

  private

  def current_user
    unless current_user_account.blank?
      @current_user ||= UserRepository.find(current_user_account.user_id)
    end
  end

  helper_method :current_user
end

Not too different from the normal Devise workflow hey? ;)

Forms

Web applications typically have lots of forms - ours is no different. It turns out, Datamappify can help build form objects too!

Here’s the view portion of one of our forms (we use Slim templates):

# our standard form layout

= simple_form_for submission_target, url: submission_path, signed: true do |f|

  = yield(f)

  .form-actions
    .pull-left
      - if archivable? && resource.persisted?
        = link_to 'Archive', '#', method: :delete, class: 'btn-archive'

    = f.submit 'Save'
    = link_to 'Cancel', cancel_path
# actual form content

= render layout: 'forms/resource' do |f|
  h3 Account Details
  .row-fluid
    .span4 = f.input :account_type, collection: BankAccount::ACCOUNT_TYPES.invert
    .span4 = f.input :account_code
    .span4 = f.input :account_name
  .row-fluid
    .span4 = f.input :account_number
    .span4 = f.input :bank_name
    .span4 = f.input :bank_branch
  .row-fluid
    .span4 = f.input :bank_bsb, label: "Bank BSB"
    .span4 = f.input :activated, as: :boolean

  h3 Branch Details
  .row-fluid
    .span4 = f.input :branch_address_line_1, label: "Address 1"
    .span4 = f.input :branch_address_line_2, label: "Address 2"
    .span4 = f.input :branch_address_line_3, label: "Address 3"
  .row-fluid
    .span4 = f.input :branch_state, label: "State"
    .span4 = f.input :branch_postcode, label: "Postcode"
    .span4
      = f.input :branch_country_code, label: "Country" do
        = f.country_select :branch_country_code, ['au', 'us', 'gb'], value: 'au'
      - f.add_signed_fields :branch_country_code
  .row-fluid
    .span4 = f.input :branch_phone_number, label: "Phone number"
    .span4 = f.input :branch_fax_number, label: "Fax number"

  h3 Merchant Details
  .row-fluid
    .span4 = f.input :merchant_number
    .span4 = f.input :merchant_name
    .span4 = f.input :merchant_address
  .row-fluid
    .span4 = f.input :merchant_biller_code, label: "Biller code"
    .span4 = f.input :merchant_bpay_method, collection: Merchant::BPAY_METHODS.invert, label: "BPAY method"
    
  h3 Payment Details
  .row-fluid
    .span4 = f.input :payment_number
    .span4 = f.input :payment_merchant, label: "Merchant description"
    .span4 = f.input :payment_reference_type, collection: PaymentAccount::REFERENCE_TYPES.invert, label: 'Reference type'

As you can see, it’s a form containing details from bank account, branch address, branch contact information, merchant and payment. And indeed we do have bank_accounts, addresses, contacts, merchants and payment_accounts tables in our database. Yet, the form still remains flat-structured and submits via simple_form_for.

This is thanks to our BankAccount entity and BankAccountRepository repository:

class BankAccount
  include Datamappify::Entity
  include Concerns::Archivable

  ACCOUNT_TYPES = {
    'general' => 'General',
    'trust'   => 'Trust'
  }

  attribute :account_type,           String
  attribute :account_code,           String
  attribute :account_name,           String
  attribute :account_number,         String
  attribute :bank_name,              String
  attribute :bank_branch,            String
  attribute :bank_bsb,               String
  attribute :activated,              Boolean, default: true
   
  attributes_from Address,           prefix_with: :branch
  attributes_from Contact,           prefix_with: :branch
  attributes_from Merchant,          prefix_with: :merchant
  attributes_from PaymentAccount,    prefix_with: :payment
   
  references :agency   
   
  validates :account_type,           Mos::Validation.in(ACCOUNT_TYPES)
  validates :account_code,           Mos::Validation::STANDARD_TEXT
  validates :account_name,           Mos::Validation::STANDARD_TEXT
  validates :account_number,         Mos::Validation::STANDARD_TEXT
  validates :bank_name,              Mos::Validation::STANDARD_TEXT
  validates :bank_branch,            Mos::Validation::STANDARD_TEXT_OPTIONAL
  validates :bank_bsb,               Mos::Validation::BSB
  validates :merchant_bpay_method,   Mos::Validation.presence_depend_on(:merchant_biller_code)
  validates :payment_reference_type, Mos::Validation.presence_depend_on(:payment_number)
end
class BankAccountRepository
  include Datamappify::Repository

  for_entity BankAccount

  default_provider :ActiveRecord

  map_attribute :branch_address_line_1,  'ActiveRecord::Address#address_line_1'
  map_attribute :branch_address_line_2,  'ActiveRecord::Address#address_line_2'
  map_attribute :branch_address_line_3,  'ActiveRecord::Address#address_line_3'
  map_attribute :branch_state,           'ActiveRecord::Address#state'
  map_attribute :branch_postcode,        'ActiveRecord::Address#postcode'
  map_attribute :branch_country_code,    'ActiveRecord::Address#country_code'
 
  map_attribute :branch_phone_number,    'ActiveRecord::Contact#phone_number'
  map_attribute :branch_fax_number,      'ActiveRecord::Contact#fax_number'
  map_attribute :branch_email,           'ActiveRecord::Contact#email'
  map_attribute :branch_website,         'ActiveRecord::Contact#website'
 
  map_attribute :merchant_number,        'ActiveRecord::Merchant#number'
  map_attribute :merchant_name,          'ActiveRecord::Merchant#name'
  map_attribute :merchant_address,       'ActiveRecord::Merchant#address'
  map_attribute :merchant_biller_code,   'ActiveRecord::Merchant#biller_code'
  map_attribute :merchant_bpay_method,   'ActiveRecord::Merchant#bpay_method'

  map_attribute :payment_number,         'ActiveRecord::PaymentAccount#number'
  map_attribute :payment_merchant,       'ActiveRecord::PaymentAccount#merchant'
  map_attribute :payment_reference_type, 'ActiveRecord::PaymentAccount#reference_type'
end

Pretty clean and straightforward. What do you think?

Datamappify - Keeping Your Domain Layer Sane

Datamappify’s concept isn’t new, but there simply isn’t anything in the ruby community that solves everything Datamappify tries to solve.

I hope that this post has not only introduced you to Datamappify, but has also made you think about how to make your application’s domain layer more decoupled.

Thanks for reading, and if you have any feedback for Datamappify please get in touch with me!

Post Notes

  1. fallenhitokiri reblogged this from ifredwu
  2. ifredwu posted this